Archives for Tutorials category


A memory upgrade can be one of the least expensive methods of improving computer’s performance. Memory is often the largest limiting factor in application deployment

especially in a Virtual Server environment. Additional RAM will provide provisioning of additional guest domains since CPU is barely utilized.

This document will provide information on the steps on upgrading the memory of server, during and after action plans that needs to undertake.

When upgrading the memory on a Linux server, it is very important to understand the existing memory of the system, which will help plan the activity without opening


Installing sudo on HP-UX

Installing sudo on HP-UX

1. check your OS and server architecture to know which package
to download. Use the uname command.
If it’s an PA-RISC 2.0 architecture, you will normally see
something like this:
# uname -an
HP-UX darwin B.11.11 U 9000/800 1234567 unlimited-user license

else if it’s an Itanium 2
# uname -an
HP-UX darwin B.11.31 U ia64 0987654321 unlimited-user license

From here you can see, the following
HP-UX operating system name
darwin hostname/system name
B.11.11 operating system release identifier
U operating system version identifier
9000/800 machine and model numbers
1234567 machine identification number
unlimited-user operating system license level


HP-UX tutorial on a Linux website? why not…

To take a break, I decided to post a tutorial here on Creating and Extending LV on HP-UX. It’s better for me to post it here so it will serve my guide once I get my hands again on HP-UX servers. This is the one I used when my colleague asked me  to check if I can find a way to increase the Filesystem  of these servers.  Here it is:

To create the LV on HP-UX server


Snort® is an open source network intrusion prevention and detection system (IDS/IPS) developed by Sourcefire.

Other definitions:
– Barnyard is an output system for Snort. Snort creates a special binary output format called unified. Barnyard reads this file, and then resends the data to a database backend. Unlike the database output plug-in, Barnyard manages the sending of events to the database and stores them when the database temporarily cannot accept connections.

BASE is the Basic Analysis and Security Engine. It is based on the code from the Analysis Console for Intrusion Databases (ACID) project. This application provides a web front-end to query and analyze the alerts coming from a SNORT IDS system.


I.Configure Master

1. edit /etc/mysql/my.cnf. We have to enable networking for MySQL,

I.Configure Master

1. edit /etc/mysql/my.cnf. We have to enable networking for MySQL,


2. Add the following line to the my.cnf

server-id = 1

3. restart mysql
#service mysqld restart

4.     log into the MySQL database as root and create a user with replication privileges:

#mysql -u root -p
mysql> GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO ‘slaveuser’@’%’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘<some_password>’; (Replace <some_password> with a real password!)



Data backup is the process of making copies of data in order to protect and restore original files whenever data loss happens. Aside from automated routine data backup, this method does not protect against failure and natural disasters. This is where off-site data backup comes in.


To establish an off-site backup of important data such as website and configuration files, and database, by copying and burning it to a removable media via DVD.

Sample Scenario:

We need to backup the webserver files and database, and burn it on DVD disc.



mysql-zrm is short for Zmanda Recovery Manager for MySQL. It lets you create full logical or raw backups of your databases , generate reports about the backups, verify the integrity of the backups, and recover your databases. It can also send email notifcations about the backup status, and you can implement multiple backup policies.

This procedure was successfully tested and implemented on CentOS 5.X and RHEL 5.X servers.
1.mysql client, MySQL server 4.1 and above
2.perl-DBI and perl-XML-Parser
yum install perl-DBI perl-XML-Parser


1.Download mysql-zrm on http://www.zmanda.com/download-zrm.php
2.Get the RPM
wget http://www.zmanda.com/downloads/community/ZRM-MySQL/2.1.1/RPM/MySQL-zrm-2.1.1-1.noarch.rpm
rpm -ivh MySQL-zrm-2.1.1-1.noarch.rpm


Tomcat,known as Apache Tomcat or Jakarta Tomcat is a servlet container developed by ASF or Apache Software Foundation. It implements the JavaServer Pages (JSP) and Java Servlet specifications from Sun Microsystems. To make it simple, it is use as a java http web server environment where you can run your Java code.

This is a brief tutorial on installing and running tomcat in Linux.

Java SDK should be installed.

Tested in CentOS 5.X

1. Download Java SDK from sun.com website


In this tutorial, we will be using Java EE 5 SDK


Obviously, this is really an old procedure, actually this is my documentation way back early 2006 when it’s my first time to work with asterisk. This procedure was implemented before in about 30-50 call center agents using softphones and it quite worked well.

So many things have changed, as we all know, from asterisk 1.2 to asterisk 1.6 , and Asterisk Management Portal is popularly known now as FreePBX. Other packages were also updated now, many changes but still asterisk is standing there as the best open source telephony system.  We had many community and commercial PBX softwares today that are asterisk-based, that’s how big asterisk right now comparing back 2006 🙂


There’s an easy way of installing Apache, Mysql and PHP and it’s via yum. You can install or update httpd,mysql-server and php, php-mysql and some minor changes on your configuration files and you’re good to go. Well, the procedure below is one way to install also, if you’re quite bored and want to develop your sysadmin skills.

I. Operating System Installation

1.    The typical type of installation is thru  CD-ROM or DVD. If you want network install, you should have a CentOS boot disk to boot the server


About FLT

This site is dedicated to everyone who likes to learn and explore the beautiful world of Linux. If you have comments and suggestions, please feel free to email at freelinuxtutorials@gmail.com. I am happy to serve and share things esp. that is free and enjoyable as Linux.